Demographic, social and economic change

Broader demographic, economic and social drivers reinforce and perpetuate population movements in London

London is now more unequal in economic terms. Studies, some of which are available below, have shown that since 1980, there has been an increase in the number of poor households, an increase in wealthy households and a squeeze on middle households. See the Londonmapper resource to explore this data.

Between 2008 and 2013 outer London experienced the highest growth in poverty rates; almost three quarters of neighbourhoods experiencing growth in poverty were in outer London with more suburban areas having above-average levels of poverty in 2011 than in 2001. Worklessness and unemployment indicators worsened most in suburban areas during this period. Meanwhile inner London experienced the biggest percentage increase in wealthy households.

Poverty in London today is not just a problem for our inner boroughs; a growing body of literature points towards growing disadvantage in outer London. Population growth will only exacerbate the challenge for outer London and the volume of Londoners moving outwards in their pursuit for relative affordability in suburbia.

Estimates based on both short and long-term migration scenarios project population growth in Greater London to rise to over 10 million by 2036. All boroughs are projected to see a rise in their population, with overall growth in outer boroughs outpacing growth in inner London. Tower Hamlets and Redbridge are expected to see the highest levels of proportional growth, while Kensington and Chelsea will experience the lowest. The highest gains in population growth under both scenarios are in the City of London and eastern boroughs.

The London Datastore holds a range of datasets related to demographic change in London, drawing on data from ONS and central government departments. In also includes GLA produced data analytics estimating population and migration trends in London.

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) includes the latest internal migration estimates alongside historical datasets and bulletins. There is also a range of datasets to examine international migration trends.

Open Geodemographics provides an interactive visualisation of London's demographics by classification, drawing on Census 2011 data.

'A growing body of literature points towards growing disadvantage in outer London'

Vizard, P et al. 2015

There is a growing body of research and data examining the changing social and economic landscape in London. Here are a few useful starting points:

Poverty in Suburbia: a smith institute study into the growth of poverty in the suburbs of England and Wales by Paul Hunter, 2014

CASE, LSE: The Changing Anatomy of Economic Inequality in London (2007-2013) by Polly Vizard, Eleni Karagiannaki, Jack Cunliffe, Amanda Fitzgerald, Polina Obolenskaya, Stephanie Thompson, Chris Grollman and Ruth Lupton, March 2015

The Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion (LSE) has an excellent repository of past papers and emerging studies examining the changing social and economic landscape in the UK

Londonmapper: a social atlas of London uses cartograms to provide an insight into the state of poverty and inequality in the capital

Centre for London examined the role of rising house prices on growing inequality in London